Medical Microbiology II - International students, 3rd year - winter semester

Last update: 26. 7. 2017

The web link to a free access microbiology textbook (Murray: Medical

I. General Microbiology

  1. Bacterial cell structure.Bacterial spore.
  2. Structure and classification of viruses.
  3. Cell wall composition of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin.
  4. Capsule and other surface components. Biofilm.
  5. Bacterial factors of pathogenicity.
  6. Exotoxins and their classification according to their mechanism of action and a site of effect.
  7. Pathogenesis of viral infections.
  8. Principles of anti-infective immunity.
  9. Bacterial genome and its plasticity. Mobile genetic elements.
  10. Classification of antibiotics according to their mechanism of action.
  11. Resistance to antibiotics. Mechanisms of resistance.
  12. Principles of rational antibiotic therapy.
  13. Penicillins. Glycopeptides. Oxazolidinons (linezolid).
  14. Cephalosporins and carbapenems.
  15. Macrolides and linkosamides. Tetracyclines. Chloramphenicol.
  16. Aminoglycosides. Polypeptide antibiotics (polymyxin).
  17. Quinolons. Co-trimoxazole. Metronidazole. Nitrofurantoin.
  18. Antituberculotics.
  19. Antiviral therapy. Antifungal therapy.
  20. Side effects of antibiotic therapy.
  21. Methods of disinfection and sterilization.

II. Special virology and mycology

  1. Herpesviruses - HSV1, HSV2 and varicella zoster virus.
  2. Herpesviruses - EBV, cytomegalovirus and HHV-6.
  3. Influenza viruses.
  4. Mumps virus. Measles virus.
  5. Rubella virus and parvovirus B19.
  6. Lyssavirus.
  7. Adenoviruses.
  8. Rotaviruses. Caliciviruses.
  9. Polioviruses and other enteroviruses.
  10. Tick-borne encephalitis virus and other flaviviruses (except for HCV).
  11. Papilomaviruses. Human pathogenic poxviruses.
  12. RSV, parainfluenza viruses, coronaviruses, rhinoviruses.
  13. Hepatitis viruses.
  14. Virus HIV and other retroviruses.
  15. Candida. Dermatophytes.
  16. Aspergillus. Zygomycetes.
  17. Cryptococcus. Pneumocystis.

III. Special Bacteriology

  1. Streptococcus pyogenes.
  2. Viridans streptococci (S. pneumoniae, oral streptococci).
  3. Beta haemolytic streptococci other than S. pyogenes.
  4. Enterococci.
  5. Staphylococcus aureus.
  6. Coagulase-negative staphylococci.
  7. Neisseria meningitidis.
  8. Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
  9. Brucella species and Francisella tularensis. Legionella pneumophila.
  10. Bordetella species.
  11. Haemophilus influenzae and other Haemophilus species.
  12. Listeria monocytogenes.
  13. Corynebacterium diphteriae and other corynebacteria.
  14. Escherichia coli. Shigella species.
  15. Salmonella species (Typhi, Enteritidis and other serotypes).
  16. Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Proteus.
  17. Yersinia species.
  18. Vibrio cholerae and other Vibrio species.
  19. Campylobacter jejuni. Helicobacter pylori.
  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other G- nonfermenters.
  21. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. M. leprae. Atypical mycobacteria.
  22. Non-spore-forming anaerobes.
  23. Actinomycetes and Nocardia.
  24. Clostridium tetani. Clostridium botulinum.
  25. Clostridium difficile.
  26. Clostridium perfringens and other histotoxic clostridia.
  27. Bacillus anthracis and other Bacillus species.
  28. Treponema pallidum.
  29. Borrelia and Leptospira.
  30. Rickettsia, Coxiella, Bartonella.
  31. Chlamydia species.
  32. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species.

IV. Parasitology

  1. Trypanosomes and Leishmania.
  2. Giardia. Cryptosporidium. Trichomonas.
  3. Entamoeba and other ameboid protosoa.
  4. Malaria parasites.
  5. Toxoplasma gondii.
  6. Schistosoma species.
  7. Taenia species and other enteric tapeworms.
  8. Echinococcus and other tissue tapeworms.
  9. Enterobius and Ascaris. Other enteric nematodes.
  10. Trichinella and other tissue nematodes.
  11. Ectoparasites.

V. Clinical microbiology

  1. Human microbial flora.
  2. Upper respiratory tract infections. Microbiological diagnostics and antimicrobial therapy.
  3. Lower respiratory tract and lung infections. Microbiological diagnostics and antimicrobial therapy.
  4. Diarrheal diseases. Microbiological diagnostics and antimicrobial therapy.
  5. Urinary tract infections. Microbiological diagnostics and antimicrobial therapy.
  6. Sexually transmitted diseases. Microbiological diagnostics and antimicrobial therapy.
  7. Aseptic neuroinfections. Microbiological diagnostics.
  8. Purulent meningitis. Microbiological diagnostics and antimicrobial therapy.
  9. Bloodstream infections. Sepsis. Microbiological diagnostics.
  10. Nosocomial infections. Multiresistant strains.
  11. Exanthematic viral infections.
  12. Skin and soft tissue infections. Microbiological diagnostics and antimicrobial therapy.
  13. Bone and joint infections. Microbiological diagnostics and antimicrobial therapy.
  14. Infections in patients with immunodeficiency.
  15. Fetal and neonatal infections.
  16. Vaccination.

VI. Microbiological methods and diagnostics

  1. Specimen collection and transport for microbiological examination.
  2. Microbiological diagnostics of bacterial infections; the use of methods of direct and indirect detection.
  3. Microbiological diagnostics of viral infections; the use of methods of direct and indirect detection.
  4. Microscopy in diagnostics of infectious diseases.
  5. Bacterial culture. Culture media, their choice, culture conditions.
  6. Methods of bacterial identification.
  7. Antibiotic susceptibility testing, detection of resistant phenotypes (MRSA, ESBL atc.). Result interpretation.
  8. Serological methods (agglutination, complement fixation, ELISA, WB, immunochromatography). Their use in diagnostics of infectious diseases.
  9. Molecular biology methods and their application in clinical microbiology.
  10. Microbiological diagnostics of protozoan infections.
  11. Microbiological diagnostics of helminth infections.
  12. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections.

List of Questions for Oral Examination
Choice of 3 exam questions from 3 areas:
1. General Microbiology + Special virology and mycology
2. Special Bacteriology + parasitology
3. Clinical microbiology + methods and diagnostics

Total number of questions: 109

Selection of random question