Pathology - International students, 3rd year - summer semester


 

A) General Pathology

  1. Anatomical pathology as a specialty. Evolution through the centuries. Autopsy, surgical specimens, biopsy, frozen section diagnosis - its importance and risks.
     
  2. Laboratory methods utilized by anatomic pathology:
    1. staining with classical methods - HE, PAS, trichrome, silver impregnations, elastic fibers, the usefulness and application of such stainings,
    2. standard paraffin embedding versus frozen section specimens - advantages and disadvantages, speed and medical applications,
    3. immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization - principles, practical usage in diagnostic process,
    4. electron microscopy - its usefulness and limitations.
       
  3. Cadaverous changes: physical and chemical autolysis.
     
  4. Cell injury:
    1. definition, causes,
    2. mechanisms
      - hypoxic and ischemic,
      - free radicals,
    3. cell death - apoptosis versus necrosis,
    4. types of necrosis,
    5. gangrene.
       
  5. Atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia
    - definitions,
    - examples.

     
  6. Pigments and pathology of their distribution:
    1. autogenous - melanin, lipofuscin, ceroid, lipochrome,
    2. hematogenous - hemosiderin, hematoidin, hemoglobin, hematin, pathology of icterus,
    3. exogenous
      - how the pigments get into the organism,
      - pneumoconiosis (anthracosis, silicosis, siderosis, asbestosis),
      - sequelae of complicated pneumoconioses.
       
  7. Metabolic disorders of lipids and carbohydrates:
    1. steatosis, classification, forms, development; inborn errors of lipid metabolism - Gaucher´s disese, Nieman-Pick´s disease, Tay-Sachs´ disease as examples,
    2. glycogen storage diseases (von Gierke, Pompe and other).
       
  8. Pathology of the interstitial matrix:
    1. acquired (myxedema, aging),
    2. congenital (cystic medionecrosis) and inborn errors of metabolism of proteoglycans (mucopolyscharidosis and its types),
    3. amyloidosis, detection, pathogenesis, types, clinical implications.
       
  9. Pathology of
    1. calcification
      - dystrophic,
      - metastatic,
    2. stones, their occurrence, composition and basic complications.
       
  10. Disorders of the vascular flow:
    1. underlying causes - diseases of the heart and of the vessels,
    2. congestive heart failure,
    3. pathology of shock,
    4. hypertension - classification, pathology, complications.
       
  11. Thrombosis and embolism:
    - definitions,
    - examples.

     
  12. Bleeding disorders:
    1. types of hemorrhage,
    2. thrombocytopenia,
    3. coagulation disorders, hereditary and acquired, DIC,
    4. vascular causes.
       
  13. Inflammation - non-specific:
    1. definition of inflammation, clinical and pathologic features - local, general,
    2. exudation of inflammatory cells, chemotaxis, basic mediators,
    3. acute inflammation versus chronic inflammation,
    4. types of exudative inflammation (serous, suppurative, lymphocytic, fibrinous, angrenous),
    5. progression, healing, complications,
    6. chronic inflammation.
       
  14. Inflammation - specific, granulomatous inflammation:
    1. definition, morphology, pathogenesis,
    2. tuberculosis - development, progression, healing,
    3. syphilis, leprosy,
    4. non-caseating granulomas with a suppurative component (cat scratch disease, brucellosis etc.).
       
  15. Repair and regeneration:
    1. healing in general, healing of a bone fracture, organization of hematoma and of thrombus,
    2. regeneration.
       
  16. Cysts: definition, classification, morphology.
     
  17. General oncology. Oncogenes, supressor genes:
    1. activation of oncogenes,
    2. tumor supressor genes,
    3. products of oncogenes, and supressor genes, signal transduction pathway, regulatory mechanisms of cell kinetics.
       
  18. General oncology. Tumor growth and metastasizing:
    1. clonal tumor development, tumor cell cycle and means of its detection life span of tumors,
    2. heterogeneity of tumor cell populations,
    3. tumor cell invasion,
    4. development of metastatic spread, homing phenomenon adhesion molecules.
       
  19. Incidence of tumors:
    1. most frequent malignant tumors in adults, sex-related differences,
    2. distinction between incidence of tumors in adults and childhood.
       
  20. Mesenchymal tumors - basic classification, behavior, examples.
     
  21. Epithelial tumors and their behavior:
    1. benign tumors of the surface epithelia,
    2. precancerous lesions of the skin, uterine cervix, bronchial mucosa, other,
    3. squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma,
    4. tumors of the glandular and organ origin
      - adenomas, adenocarcinomas,
      - gross and microscopic evaluation, biological properties, examples.
       
  22. Tumors of the peripheral neural system:
    1. tumors of the peripheral nerves,
    2. paraganglioma,
    3. tumors of the sympathetic neural tissue (neuroblastic tumors in childhood).
       
  23. Classification of tumors. Miscellaneous tumors:
    1. teratomas, classification, components, germinal tumors,
    2. choriocarcinoma,
    3. mesothelioma.
       
  24. Morphology of infectious diseases - general features:
    1. local spread of infections,
    2. bacteriemia, sepsis, septicopyemia and its types,
    3. mechanisms of bacteria-induced injury, bacterial adhesins, toxins.
       
  25. Common bacterial diseases:
    1. streptococcal and staphylococcal, meningococcal infections and their morphology,
    2. colibacillary infections salmonellosis typhus, Helicobacter pylori infections,
    3. infectious diseases caused by hemophilus, pseudomonas, Burgholderia cepacea.
       
  26. Morphology of infectious diseases:
    1. infections caused by chlamydia, ricketsia and mycoplasma,
    2. mechanisms of virus-induced injury,
    3. most common infections caused by viruses - herpes, varicella-zoster, CMV, EBV, influenza, measles, rubella.
       
  27. Morphology of HIV infection and AIDS:
    1. viral transmission,
    2. virus-host interactions,
    3. pathology of AIDS.
       

B) Organ Pathology

  1. Pathology of the pericardium:
    1. hydropericardium, hemopericardium,
    2. inflammation - nonspecific, tuberculosis.
       
  2. Pathology of the heart. Congenital malformations:
    - classification, diagnosis,
    - left-to-right shunts - right-to-left shunts, including coarctation of the aorta
    - obstructive malformations,
    - Fallot´s tetralogy, transposition of the great arteries.

     
  3. Ischemic heart disease:
    1. pathogenesis, changes of the coronary vessels,
    2. morphology,
    3. development, healing and complications.
       
  4. Myocarditis. Cardiomyopathies:
    - subtypes,
    - morphology,
    - clinicopathological correlations.

     
  5. Acquired diseases of the heart valves and their complications:
    1. endocarditis
      - rheumatic fever,
      - infectious endocarditis,
    2. dystrophic changes,
    3. tumors of the heart.
       
  6. Pathology of the vessels. Arterial diseases:
    1. atherosclerosis,
    2. vasculitis,
    3. aneurysms.
       
  7. Pathology of the vessels. Venous disorders and disorders of the lymphatic vessels:
    1. thrombosis and its complications,
    2. thrombophlebitis,
    3. lymphedema, erysipelas.
       
  8. Pathology of the hemopoietic system. Anemias:
    1. efinition, classification,
    2. posthemorrhagic anemias,
    3. hemolytic anemias
      - corpuscular,
      - extracorpuscular,
    4. anemias of diminished erythropoiesis - iron deficiency anemias,
    5. anemias of diminished erythropoiesis - folic acid and B12 defficiency anemias,
    6. aplastic anemias, bone marrow failure.
       
  9. White blood cell disorders:
    1. reactive conditions
      - leucocytosis, leukopenia,
      - infectious mononucleosis,
    2. leukemias and myeloproliferative diseases
      - classsification (acute, chronic)
      - acute leukemias - ALL, AML
      - myelodysplastic syndromes
       
  10. White blood cell disorders:
    1. chronic myeloid leukemia,
    2. myeloproliferative disorders and entities incorporated into this group,
    3. chronic lymphocytic leukemia,
    4. plasma cell myeloma and related entities.
       
  11. Pathology of the spleen:
    1. dystrophic and circulatory changes,
    2. splenomegaly, causes,
    3. primary and secondary tumors.
       
  12. Pathology of the lymph nodes:
    1. reactive changes,
    2. inflammation,
    3. non-Hodgkin´s lymphomas,
    4. Hodgkin´s lymphoma.
       
  13. Pathology of the pleural cavity:
    1. hydrothorax, pneumothorax,
    2. pleuritis nonspecific, tuberculous,
    3. asbestosis and mesothelioma.
       
  14. Pathology of the respiratory system:
    1. malformations of the respiratory system,
    2. obstructive lung diseases
      - asthma bronchiale,
      - chronic obstructive lung diseases - chronic bronchitis, emphysema,
      - bronchiectasis.
       
  15. Pathology of the respiratory system:
    1. restrictive lung diseases
      - acute, adult respiratory distress syndrome,
      - chronic, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, other,
    2. vascular lung diseases
      - pulmonary embolism, infarction, edema, hemorrhage,
      - pulmonary hypertension.
       
  16. Pathology of the respiratory system. Pulmonary infections:
    1. acute bacterial pneumonia,
    2. ‘atypical’ pneumonias,
    3. chronic pneumonia,
    4. tuberculosis
       
  17. Lung tumors:
    1. carcinoma - classification, localization, spread, paraneoplastic syndromes,
    2. bronchial carcinoid and other tumors,
    3. other tumors of the lungs, including metastatic tumors.
       
  18. Pathology of the peritoneal cavity:
    1. hernias acquired external and internal, congenital hernias,
    2. inflammation - diffuse and circumscribed non-specific peritonitis, acute and chronic tuberculosis,
    3. carcinosis of the peritoneum.
       
  19. Pathology of the GIT. Malformations of the facial structures and of the GIT:
    1. cleft lip and palate,
    2. malformations caused by amnial bands,
    3. gastroschisis, omphalocele, intestinal malrotation, pyloric stenosis, atresia ani et recti,
    4. Hirschsprung´s disease.
       
  20. Pathology of the oral cavity:
    1. pathology of teeth and gums,
    2. inflammations,
    3. tumors, carcinoma of the oral cavity,
    4. salivary gland pathology - inflammations, tumors.
       
  21. Pathology of the oesophagus:
    1. disorders of oesophageal motility, diverticula, varices,
    2. reflux esophagitis,
    3. esophageal carcinoma.
       
  22. Pathology of the stomach and duodenum:
    1. gastritis, subtypes (acute and chronic, causes),
    2. peptic ulcer and its complication
    3. tumors - polyps, carcinoma, lymphoma, stromal tumors.
       
  23. Appendicitis:
    1. acute - morphologic types, evolution, complications,
    2. chronic - evolution and complications.
       
  24. Pathology of the small and large intestine:
    1. vascular disorders,
    2. inflammatory diseases, infections enterocolitis,
    3. Crohn´s disease,
    4. ulcerative colitis,
    5. malabsorption syndromes.
       
  25. Pathology of the intestines. Neoplasms:
    1. polyps - non neoplastic, adenomatous - types,
    2. gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes,
    3. colorectal carcinoma,
    4. intestinal lymphomas, stromal tumors.
       
  26. Pathology of the biliary tree:
    1. malformations of the biliary tree - biliary atresia,
    2. biliary obstruction,
    3. acute and chronic inflammations,
    4. carcinoma of the biliary tree.
       
  27. Pathology of the liver:
    1. liver cell necrosis,
    2. toxic and drug-induced liver disease, incl. ‘alcohol’ liver disease,
    3. vascular disorders.
       
  28. Pathology of the liver. Infections:
    1. secondary hepatitis,
    2. viral hepatitis caused by hepatotrophic viruses - classification, morphology, clinicopathological correlations,
    3. other types of hepatitis.
       
  29. Pathology of the liver:
    1. liver cirrhosis - classification, pathogenesis, complications, portal hypertension,
    2. liver tumors - adenoma, carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, other tumors, incl. metastatic.
       
  30. Pathology of the exocrine pancreas:
    1. malformations,
    2. cystic fibrosis,
    3. acute and chronic pancreatitis,
    4. carcinoma of the pancreas.
       
  31. Pathology of the kidneys:
    1. malformations of the kidney and urinary tract, renal cystic disease,
    2. vascular disorders, benign and malignant nephrosclerosis, necrosis,
    3. acute and chronic interstitial nephritis.
       
  32. Pathology of the kidneys. Diseases affecting renal glomeruli:
    1. mechanisms of glomerular injury,
    2. nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, minimal change glomerulopathies,
    3. nephritic syndrome and glomerulonephritis, RPGN.
       
  33. Pathology of the kidneys:
    1. pathology of the urinary collecting system
      - stones of the urinary tract,
      - hydronephrosis - causes and its complications,
    2. tumors of the kidney and collecting system
      - renal cell carcinoma,
      - renal tumors in childhood.
       
  34. Pathology of the male genital system.
    1. penis - precancerous lesions, carcinoma,
    2. scrotum, testis and epidydimis
      - cryptorchidism,
      - inflammation - acute suppurative, viral, tbc,
      - tumors - germ cell tumors, stromal tumors, other neoplasms (eg. lymphomas, rhabdomyosarcoma).
       
  35. Pathology of the male genital system. The pathology of the prostate:
    1. hyperplasia,
    2. inflammation,
    3. carcinoma.
       
  36. Pathology of the female genital system:
    1. pathology of the uterine cervix
      - cervicitis,
      - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,
      - carcinoma,
    2. pathology of the uterine corpus
      - proliferative and hyperproliferative endometrial changes,
      - inflammations,
      - carcinoma and precancerous lesions,
      - leiomyoma, sarcomas,
      - mixed tumors.
       
  37. Pathology of the female genital system. Pathology of the Fallopian tubes and ovaries:
    1. inflammation acute, chronic, consequences,
    2. non-neoplastic ovarian cysts,
    3. tumors
      - surface epithelial tumors,
      - germ cell tumors,
      - gonadal stromal tumors,
      - metastatic tumors, clinicopathological correlation.
       
  38. Diseases of pregnancy:
    1. placental disorders,
    2. ectopic pregnancy,
    3. trophoblastic disease - hydatidiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma.
       
  39. Pathology of the breast:
    1. malformations,
    2. inflammation during lactation, other,
    3. fibrocystic disease.
       
  40. Pathology of the breast tumors:
    1. benign tumors, mesenchymal tumors,
    2. carcinoma, classification, morphology, clinicopathologic correlation.
       
  41. Pathology of the brain:
    1. basic reactions of neurons and glial cells,
    2. increased intracranial pressure,
    3. cerebral edema, hydrocephalus,
    4. brain malformations - neural tube defects, holoprosencephaly.
       
  42. Vascular diseases of the brain:
    1. global hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy,
    2. cerebral infarct,
    3. intracranial hemorrhage.
       
  43. Pathology of the brain: Neurodegenerative diseases
    1. Alzheimer´s disease,
    2. Huntington disease,
    3. parkinsonism,
    4. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
       
  44. Pathology of the brain: Demyelinating and metabolic disorders
    1. Demyelinating diseases,
      - multiple sclerosis,
      - other demyelinating diseases.
    2. Metabolic encephalopathies
      - Wilson´s disease,
      - cobalamin and thiamin deficiency,
      - leukodystrophies.
       
  45. Pathology of the brain: Infections
    1. meningitis,
    2. brain abscess,
    3. viral encephalitis,
    4. spongiform encephalopathies.
       
  46. Pathology of the brain: Brain tumors
    1. epidemiology, classification, clinicopathological correlation,
    2. glial brain tumors - astrocytic, ependymal and oligodendroglial tumors,
    3. non-glial brain tumors - medulloblastoma, meningioma, other. Metastatic neoplasms.
       
  47. Neuromuscular pathology:
    1. muscle atrophy, myositis, muscular dystrophies, myasthenia gravis,
    2. peripheral neuropathies.
       
  48. Pathology of the soft tissues tumors:
    1. tumors of adipose tissue - lipoma, liposarcoma,
    2. fibromatoses, nodular fasciitis, fibrosarcoma; synovial sarcoma,
    3. rhabdomyoma, rhabdomyosarcoma; leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma,
    4. vascular tumors - hemangiomas, angiosarcoma, Kaposi´s sarcoma.
       
  49. Pathology of the bones and joints:
    1. metabolic diseases
      - osteoporosis,
      - rickets and osteomalacia,
      - osteitis fibrosa cystica,
      - renal osteodystrophy,
    2. osteomyelitis,
      - suppurative osteomyelitis,
      - Paget´s disease,
      - specific osteomyelitis.
       
  50. Pathology of the bones and joints:
    1. arthritis, incl. primary polyarthritis,
    2. osteoarthrosis - degenerative joint disease,
    3. traumatic changes, hemarthros.
       
  51. Pathology of the bones and joints:
    1. bone tumors, classification, clinicopathologic correlation,
    2. fibrous dysplasia.
       
  52. Pathology of the endocrine system. Diabetes mellitus:
    - classification,
    - basic pathogenesis,
    - pathogenesis of complications.

     
  53. Pathology of the endocrine system. Pathology of the pituitary gland:
    1. vascular changes,
    2. tumors,
    3. basic clinical syndromes.
       
  54. Pathology of the endocrine system. Pathology of the thyroid gland:
    1. diffuse and multinodular goiter,
    2. Grave´s disease,
    3. thyroiditis, subtypes,
    4. tumors, classification, clinicopathologic correlation,
    5. hypofunction and hyperfunction syndromes.
       
  55. Pathology of the endocrine system. Pathology of the adrenal glands:
    1. adrenal cortical hyperfunction
      - Cushing´s syndrome and morphologic correlation,
      - hyperaldosteronism,
      - adrenogenital syndromes,
    2. adrenal cortical hypofunction
      - Addison´s disease, acute adrenocortical insufficiency,
    3. pathology of the adrenal medulla
      - neuroblastoma,
      - pheochromocytoma.
       
  56. Pathology of the endocrine system:
    1. carcinoids,
    2. islet cell tumors,
    3. multiple endocrine neoplasia.
       
  57. Perinatal pathology:
    1. causes of perinatal mortality,
    2. perinatal trauma,
    3. neonatal respiratory distress syndrome,
    4. perinatal infections.
       

Total number of questions: 84

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