Pathological Physiology - International students, 3rd year - summer semester

Last update: 24. 9. 2013

Nervous system

  • Upper motor neuron disorders, spastic type of paralysis.
  • Lower motor neuron disorders, flacid type of paralysis.
  • Disorders of neuromuscular junction and muscles, electromyography.
  • Disorders of somatosensora sensation, pain.
  • Disorders of myelination.
  • Disorders of bazal ganglia.
  • Disorders of cerebellum.
  • Schizophrenia and mood disorders, dementia and Alzheimer´s disease.
  • Disorders of cerebral blood flow (cerebrovascular disorders).
  • Clinical signs and symptoms of increased and decreased intracranial pressure.
  • Brain edema, disordes of blood brain barrier.
  • Brain trauma.
  • Sleep disorders and disorders of consciousness.
  • Epileptic seizures and epilepsies, electroencephalography.

General pathophysiology

  • Health, illness, death.
  • Cancerogenesis.
  • Inborn errors.
  • Disorders of temperature regulation.
  • Allergy, immunity.
  • Inflammation.
  • Edema, ascites.
  • Concrements formation.
  • Acidosis.
  • Alkalosis.
  • Disorders of the extracellular fluid volume and composition.
  • Disorders of K+, Ca++, P metabolism.


  • Consequences of blood loss (acute, chronic).
  • Pathophysiology of the vessels.
  • Pulmonary hypertension (causes and consequencies).
  • Arterial hypertension.
  • Shocks, common features and differences.
  • Acute heart failure.
  • Congestive (chronic) heart failure.
  • Disorders of coronary circulation and clinical forms of ischemic heart disease.
  • Congenital heart diseases.
  • Valvular defects.
  • Disturbances in impulse conduction in the heart, cardiac arrhytmias.
  • Tests of cardiovascular function, ergometry.


  • Lung volumes and capacities in respiratory diseases.
  • Consequences of changed compliance of the respiratory system.
  • Airway resistance.
  • Bronchial obstruction, bronchial asthma, pulmonary emphysema.
  • Restriction of ventilation, lung fibrosis.
  • Inequalities of ventilation-perfusion ratio.
  • Lung diffusing capacity.
  • Lung oedema.
  • Disturbances of alveolar ventilation, respiratory insufficiency.
  • Control of breathing in respiratory diseases, ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia.
  • Types of hypoxia.
  • Hypobaria and hyperbaria, oxygenotherapy.
  • Pneumothorax.
  • Defense lung reflexes.
  • Lung function tests (spirometry, bronchoconstrition and bronchodilatation tests, blood gases).


  • Anaemia.
  • Disorders of haemopoesis.
  • Disorders of hemostasis.
  • Laboratory testing in hematology


  • Disorders of adenohyphysis.
  • Disorders of adrenal gland, stress reaction.
  • Disorders of thyroid.
  • Disorders of parathyroid.
  • Disorders of hormonal regulations.
  • Disorders of sex hormones in ontogenesis.
  • Diabetes mellitus.


  • Disorders of glomerular filtration.
  • Nephrotic syndrom.
  • Disorders of tubular transport.
  • Oliguria and polyuria.
  • Nephrolithiasis.
  • Disturbances of renal blood flow.
  • Acute renal failure.
  • Chronic renal failure.
  • Testing of renal function.

Gastrointestinal tract, metabolism

  • Gastrointestinal motility disorders, ileus.
  • Peptic ulcers.
  • Disorders of pancreatic function.
  • Liver failure.
  • Icterus.
  • Alimentary disorders, metabolic syndrom.
  • Consequences of vitamins deficiency.
  • Lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis.

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