Physiology - International students, 2nd year - summer semester


  1. Origins of action potential and mechanisms involved
  2. Ion distribution on the cell membrane
  3. Forms of trans-membrane transport of substances
  4. Body fluid compartments, composition, measurement
  5. Action potential in myocardial cells, mechanisms
  6. Spreading of action potential in myocardium
  7. Origins of the heart rhythmicity
  8. ECG
  9. Heart rate, its regulation
  10. Myocardial contraction. Differences from contraction of skeletal muscle.
  11. Excitation - contraction coupling in myocardium
  12. Homeometric and heterometric regulation of myocardial contractility
  13. Functional significance of heart ventricle compliancy
  14. Phases of heart contraction. Function of valves.
  15. Minute cardiac output
  16. Interactions between blood pressure and blood flow
  17. Factors determining arterial blood pressure. Mean blood pressure.
  18. Methods of measurement of cardiac output
  19. Regulation of cardiac output
  20. Capacity of different parts of vascular bed. Regulation.
  21. Relation of volume of blood and blood pressure
  22. Neural control of peripheral vascular resistance
  23. Chemical control of peripheral vascular resistance
  24. Coronary blood flow
  25. Relation of myocardial metabolism to its function
  26. Circulatory changes during body load
  27. Lymph production, lymph flow
  28. Regional differences in the capillary fluid filtration
  29. Influences of body position on hemodynamics
  30. Pulmonary volumes and capacities
  31. Compositioon of alveolar gas
  32. Effect of dead space on the composition of alveolar air and arterial blood
  33. Mechanism of inspirium and exspirium. Respiratory muscles.
  34. Factors determining the lung compliance
  35. Factors determining lung resistance. Airway resistance.
  36. Work of brathing
  37. Factors determining the blood oxygen capacity
  38. Transport of O2 and CO2 across the alveolocapillary membrane
  39. Measurement of alveoli-capillary transport of O2 and CO2
  40. Hemoglobin dissociation curve
  41. Changes in O2-transport during body load
  42. Transport of CO2 in the blood
  43. Chemical mechanisms in breathing regulation
  44. Neural control of breathing
  45. Cough and its functional implication
  46. Venous intermixture
  47. Inequalities between lung ventilation and lung perfusion
  48. Functional signification of hypoxic lung vasoconstriction
  49. Effects of chronic hypoxia on pulmonary circulation
  50. Pulmonary circulation
  51. Regulation of pulmonary blood vessels
  52. Acute and chronic hypoxia
  53. Renal blood flow. regulation. renal blood flow vs. glomerular filtration
  54. Factors determining glomerular filtration rate
  55. Measurement of renal blood flow and measurement of GFR
  56. Tubular reabsorbtion of glucose
  57. Measurement of tubular transport
  58. Transport of sodium and water in proximal nephron
  59. System of renin – angiotensin - aldosterone
  60. Excretion of K+ in kidney
  61. Renal excretion of urea
  62. Concentration and dilution mechanisms of urine
  63. Regulation of acid-base balance
  64. Renal transport of bicarbonate. Functional effects.
  65. Metabolism of ammoniac in renal tubules
  66. Contractile mechanisms of skeletal muscle fibre
  67. Excitation - contraction coupling in skeletal muscle
  68. Energy metabolisms of skeletal muscle contraction
  69. Tone regulation in skeletal muscle
  70. Mechanism of voluntary contraction of skeletal muscle
  71. Red blood cells. Origins, function, regulation, ontogenesis.
  72. Blood groups
  73. Function of thrombocytes
  74. Equilibrium of blood coagulants and anticoagulants
  75. Function mechanisms of food swallowing
  76. Character of gastric motility. Regulation.
  77. Small Intestinal motility. Regulation.
  78. Colon motility. Regulation.
  79. Mechanisms of defecation
  80. Function and regulation of saliva secretion
  81. Gastric secretion. Mechanisms, function and regulation.
  82. Secretion of pancreatic juice. Function and regulation.
  83. Bile
  84. Intestinal juice secretion. Function and regulation.
  85. Digestion and resorption of saccharides
  86. Digestion and resorption of proteins
  87. Digestion and resorption of lipids
  88. Metabolism of water and solutes in gastrointestinal tract
  89. Transport mechanisms of calcium and phosphate in gastrointestinal tract
  90. Transport of iron in intestine
  91. Thermoregulation, ontogenesis
  92. Aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis
  93. Mechanisms of action of hormones (overview)
  94. Characteristic types of feedback regulation of hormonal secretion
  95. Hormons of adenohypophysis system
  96. Hormons of neurohypophysis, their importance in development
  97. Function of middle lobe of pituitary gland
  98. Function of adrenal medulla
  99. Function of glucocorticoids, regulation of their secretion
  100. Regulatory role of renin-aldosterone system
  101. Endocrine function of testes
  102. Endocrine function of ovaries
  103. Endocrine function of placenta
  104. Humoral regulation of menstruation
  105. Humoral changes during pregnancy
  106. Mechanisms of contraception
  107. Functional changes in newborns immediately after
  108. Metabolic effects of insulin
  109. Function of glucagon
  110. Humoral regulation of glucose metabolism
  111. Regulatory role of NO
  112. Regulatory function of epithelial cells
  113. Signal transmission in the CNS
  114. Function of glia
  115. Types of nerve fibres, conductance
  116. Synaptic transmission
  117. Neurotransmitters (overview)
  118. Ionotropic and metabotropic synaptic receptors
  119. Hematoencephalic barrier
  120. Gamma system
  121. Reflex and non-reflex functions of the CNS
  122. Function of spinal cord
  123. Voluntary control of movement
  124. Basal ganglia
  125. Sympaticus and parasympaticus
  126. Functions of thalamus
  127. EEG, evoked potentials
  128. Reticular formation and modulatory systems
  129. Mechanisms of sleep. Arrousal, vigility.
  130. Pain
  131. Limbic system, motivation, emotion
  132. Types of memory
  133. Principle of engram formation
  134. Function of neocortex, specialization of hemispheres
  135. Pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems
  136. Excitatory neurotransmitters in nervous system
  137. Inhibitory transmitters in nervous system
  138. Mechanisms of vision
  139. Function of retina
  140. Mechanisms of hearing
  141. Conversion of sonic waves to electric signal
  142. Vestibular apparate, nystagmus
  143. Smell and taste
  144. Somatosensory system

Total number of questions: 144

Selection of random question