Biochemistry - International students, 2nd year - summer semester

Last update: 11. 5. 2017

Part 1: General chemistry, and metabolism

  1. Mechanism of enzyme catalysis, functions of enzymes, mechanisms of regulation. Enzyme classification – examples.
  2. Enzyme kinetics, Michaelis-Menten’s equation, enzyme saturation curve, types of enzyme inhibition.
  3. Vitamins as coenzymes precursors. Structure, functions, and metabolism. Disorders caused by vitamin deficiency.
  4. Glycolysis, mechanisms of anaerobic and aerobic glucose transformation, mechanism of production and ATP balance. Integration of glycolysis with other metabolic pathways, regulation of glycolysis.
  5. Gluconeogenesis, importance for metabolism, mechanisms of gluconeogenesis regulation. Glycogen.
  6. Pentose phosphate pathway, mechanism of saccharide conversion, importance of pentose phosphate pathway for cell activity.
  7. Structures of saccharides. Metabolism of glycogen, synthesis and degradation, regulation of metabolic pathways.
  8. Structures of monosaccharides. Fructose and galactose metabolism, enzymatic disorders.
  9. Citrate cycle, production of reduced coenzymes for respiratory chain, substrates input and output into/from this metabolic pathway. Coenzyme A. Anaplerotic reactions of citrate cycle.
  10. Gibb’s energy. Bioenergetics, basics of thermodynamics, role of ATP in storage and conversion of chemical energy.
  11. Oxidative phosphorylation, respiratory chain, Mitchell’s chemiosmotic theory, mechanism of ATP synthesis – proton gradient. Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation.
  12. Biosynthesis and metabolism of cholesterol, regulatory mechanisms. Structure of steroids.
  13. Composition of lipoprotein complexes, transport of cholesterol. Electrophoresis of lipoproteins. Importance of lipoproteins for medicine.
  14. Nucleic acids. Metabolism of nucleotides, synthesis and degradation of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Regulation of biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine heterocycles.
  15. Metabolism of iron. Synthesis and degradation of heme. Bilirubin and hyperbilirubinemia. Differential diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemias.
  16. Structure and metabolism of amino acids, biosynthesis and degradation. Protonation equilibriums of amino acids. Glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids. Participation of amino acids in metabolism.
  17. Conversion of amino acids to specialized products. Transaminases. B group vitamins.
  18. Urea cycle, ammonia transport among tissues and its excretion. Toxicity of ammonia.
  19. Structure of fatty acids and triacylglycerols. Essential fatty acids. Biosynthesis of fatty acids. Relation of fatty acids to other metabolic pathways.
  20. β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and peroxisomes. Energetic balance of β-oxidation and integration to metabolism. Elongases and desaturases.
  21. Structure of acylglycerols and sphingolipids. Metabolism of acylglycerols and sphingolipids. Transport forms of triacylglycerols.
  22. Structures of saccharides. Main metabolic pathways of saccharides. Regulation of saccharide metabolism, key enzymes. Principles of hormonal regulation of saccharide metabolisms.
  23. Structure, types and functions of lipids. Regulations of lipid metabolism, key enzymes. Principles of hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism.
  24. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. Biosynthesis and degradation of proteins, initiation, elongation and terminal phases of protein biosynthesis. Proteases and their classification, proteasome.
  25. Cell compartments. Subcellular compartmentalisation of metabolism, organelles as locations of specific metabolic pathways.
  26. Biologically important minerals and trace elements. Biochemical importance of keeping ion balance.
  27. Glycoproteins, structure, saccharide components, biological functions. Mucins and their biological roles. Blood groups.
  28. Biochemical mechanisms of cell signalling. First and second messengers. Structure and function of membrane receptors. Structure signalling molecules.
  29. AMP activated protein kinase. Role in metabolism and regulation.
  30. Application of analytical methods in biochemistry, requirements for ideal methods + their selection. Spectrophotometry, potentiometry, chromatography, electrophoresis.

Part 2: Functional biochemistry

  1. Biochemistry of blood elements. Coagulation a fibrinolysis, mechanism of fibrin formation and role of proteinase cascade, regulatory mechanisms, biochemistry of fibrinolysis. Vitamin K.
  2. Blood plasma proteins, their function and classification. Electrophoresis of blood plasma proteins.
  3. Metabolism of erythrocytes, exceptionality of erythrocyte metabolism, different types of Hb – foetal Hb and pathological forms. Bohr’s effect. Saturation curves of haemoglobin and myoglobin.
  4. Metabolism of leukocytes and thrombocytes, role of NADPH oxidase and defence against bacterial infection. Inflammation. Metabolism of arachidonic acid.
  5. Biochemistry of immune system, innate and adaptive immunity. Structure of immunoglobulins. Autoimmune processes. Basic principles of immunochemical methods.
  6. Biochemistry of heart, energetic metabolism of myocardium. Biochemical markers of hypoxic injury of myocardium. Myocardial ischemia. Acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction.
  7. Biochemistry of lungs, surfactant and its function. Proteases and antiproteases. Biochemical basis of pneumoconiosis and emphysema. Toxicity of oxygen.
  8. Proteins of extracellular matrix, role of collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and other proteins of extracellular matrix, synthesis and degradation. Biochemical markers of extracellular matrix degradation. Role of vitamin C.
  9. Biochemistry of skin, composition and functions of skin, sweat production, melanogenesis. UV irradiation and photochemical reactions. Phototoxicity of porphyrins and bilirubin.
  10. Biochemistry of bone, basic components of bone, function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Hormonal regulation of calcium concentration in bones. Osteoporosis.
  11. The role of adipose tissue in postprandial and fasting states,homonal regulation.
    Energy storage,heat production,uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation.
  12. Biochemistry of muscle contraction, contractile proteins, molecular aspects of contraction. Function of myoglobin in muscle biochemistry. Energetic substrates of muscle. Rigor mortis.
  13. Biochemistry of kidney, metabolic pathways localized in kidney, urine production. Pathologic components of urine.
  14. Biochemistry of GIT, enzymatic systems of GIT. Ingestion of vitamins.
  15. Biochemistry of liver, its role in metabolism, as a storage organ, in detoxification and excretion.
  16. Biosynthesis and biochemistry of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, GABA, glutamate, catecholamines, serotonin, dopamine), cell signalling on synapses. Amino acids as neurotransmitters precursors.
  17. pH and acid base balance. Metabolism of water. Principles of acid base regulations, role of biological buffers. Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.
  18. Role of calcium in metabolism. Intracellular calcium signalling. Bone. Regulation of calcium metabolism. Osteoporosis. Vitamin D.
  19. Structure, function and biochemistry of hormones derived from amino acids and proteins. Integration in metabolism and role.
  20. Structure, function and biochemistry of steroid hormones. Synthesis of their precursor – cholesterol. Integration in metabolism and role.
  21. Structure, function and biochemistry of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Metabolism of iodine.
  22. Structure and biochemical importance of eicosanoids. Pathobiochemistry of atherosclerosis, role of NADPH oxidase and NO synthase. Transport of lipoproteins and atherogenesis.
  23. Biochemistry of nutrition.Regulation of food intake.
  24. Mechanism of vision, biochemistry signal transduction to brain. Vitamin A.
  25. Hormonal regulation of glycaemia, oGTT. Biochemical aspects of diabetes. Hypoglycaemia. Long term effect of diabetes on organism. Metabolism of the eye.
  26. Acid base balance. Mechanisms of acidosis and alcalose compensations. Role of lungs, kidneys and liver in regulation of acid base balance. Astrup.
  27. Toxicology and xenobiochemistry. Reaction of first and second phase of detoxification. Metabolism of ethanol. Metabolic consequences of ethanol abusus.
  28. Integration of metabolic pathways in different organs, response of the metabolism to prolonged starvation. Cori’s cycle.
  29. Biochemistry of free radicals, oxidative stress and aging. Mitochondria and mitochondrial disorders.

Total number of questions: 59

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