Histology and Embryology - International students, 1st year - summer semester

Last update: 9. 9. 2015

These questions represent the background for the final electronic test.

Cytology and General Histology

  1. Cell and its components
  2. Plasma membrane
  3. Mitochondria
  4. Ribosomes
  5. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  6. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  7. Golgi complex
  8. Lysosomes and peroxisomes
  9. Microtubules
  10. Centriole
  11. Cytoplasmic filaments
  12. Cytoplasmic inclusions
  13. Nucleus
  14. Epithelial tissue - general characteristic
  15. Specializations of the lateral surfaces of epithelial cells
  16. Specializations of the apical surfaces of epithelial cells
  17. Ciliary apparatus
  18. Specializations of the basal surfaces of epithelial cells
  19. Basal lamina - basement membrane
  20. Classification of types of epithelia
  21. Glandular epithelium
  22. Classification of glands
  23. Morphological characteristic of protein synthesizing cells
  24. Morphological characteristic of mucus secreting cells
  25. Morphological characteristic of steroid secreting cells
  26. Morphological characteristic of polypeptides- or biogenic amines-secreting cells
  27. Morphological characteristic of cells that transport ions
  28. Connective tissue - general characteristic
  29. Connective tissue proper - general structure
  30. Types of the connective tissue proper
  31. Cartilage - general characteristic
  32. Cartilage - types of the cartilage and their structure
  33. Bone - basic components of the bone tissue
  34. Types of bone tissue, joints
  35. Histogenesis of bone tissue
  36. Nerve tissue - neurons
  37. Synapses
  38. Neuroglia
  39. Myelination
  40. Muscle tissue - general characteristic, types of muscle tissue, regeneration
  41. Skeletal muscle tissue
  42. Cardiac muscle tissue
  43. Smooth muscle tissue
  44. Muscle contraction mechanism
  45. Motor end plate, propagation of impulse for the muscle contraction
  46. Erythrocytes
  47. Leukocytes - granulocytes
  48. Leukocytes - agranulocytes
  49. Thrombocytes
  50. Maturation of erythrocytes
  51. Maturation of granulocytes
  52. Maturation of agranulocytes and thrombocytes

Histological Techniques

  1. Paraffin technique of the sample processing
  2. Resin technique of the sample processing
  3. Freezing technique of the sample processing
  4. Imaging devices for the light microscopy, principles of their function
  5. Imaging devices for the electron microscopy, principles of their function
  6. Devices preparing slides for the light and electron microscopy, their function
  7. Principles of the synoptic and special staining of slides
  8. Principles of contrasting of slides for the electron microscopy
  9. Principles of the conventional histochemistry in the light microscopy
  10. Principles of the enzyme histochemistry and in situ zymography
  11. Principles of the lectin histochemistry, panels of lectins
  12. Principles of the immunohistochemistry
  13. Principles of visualization systems for the lectin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry
  14. The conventional, enzyme and lectin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry in the electron microscopy
  15. Principles of the in situ hybridization in microscopy
  16. Principles of the atomic force microscopy (AFM)

Microscopic Anatomy

  1. General structure of vessels
  2. Capillaries
  3. Arteries
  4. Veins and lymphatic vessels
  5. Heart
  6. General structure of lymphoid organs, their classification and cells that functionally belong to the lymphoid system
  7. Thymus
  8. Lymph node
  9. Spleen
  10. Incompletely encapsulated and unencapsulated lymphoid organs
  11. Upper respiratory passages and larynx
  12. Lower respiratory passages
  13. Respiratory portion of respiratory system
  14. Morphological nature of conditioning of air
  15. General structure of digestive tract
  16. Oral cavity
  17. Tongue
  18. Pharynx and esophagus
  19. Teeth
  20. Stomach
  21. Small intestine – duodenum
  22. Small intestine – jejunum and ileum
  23. Large intestine
  24. Salivary glands
  25. Pancreas
  26. Liver - general structure, hepatocytes
  27. Intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, gallbladder
  28. Kidney - general structure, renal corpuscle
  29. Kidney – renal tubules
  30. Urinary passages, bladder
  31. Testis
  32. Male genital ducts
  33. Male accessory genital glands
  34. Penis
  35. Ovary – oogenesis, ovarian follicles, ovulation
  36. Ovary – corpus luteum
  37. Oviduct
  38. Uterus
  39. Endometrium during the menstrual cycle
  40. Vagina and female external genitalia
  41. Hypophysis
  42. Pineal body
  43. Thyroid
  44. Parathyroid gland
  45. Adrenal gland
  46. Spinal cord
  47. Cerebellum
  48. Telencephalon
  49. Meninges
  50. Peripheral nerves
  51. Nerve ganglia
  52. Skin
  53. Hair and nails
  54. Glands of skin
  55. Mammary gland
  56. Receptors – classification; receptors related to somatic and visceral sensitivity
  57. Proprioceptors
  58. Olfactory receptors
  59. Taste receptors
  60. Eye - tunica fibrosa and tunica vasculosa
  61. Eye - tunica nervosa
  62. Lens, vitreous body, accessory structures of eye
  63. External and middle ear
  64. Internal ear


  1. Fertilization and cleavage of oocyte
  2. Blastocyst and its implantation
  3. Bilaminar germ disc, amniotic and yolk sac
  4. Trilaminar germ disc
  5. Stages of development of the embryo and fetus and their morphological manifestations
  6. Fetal membranes, umbilical cord, placenta
  7. Differentiation of intraembryonic mesoderm
  8. Notogenesis; vertebrospinal axis of embryo
  9. Development of bones: head and axial skeleton
  10. Development of limbs
  11. Development of muscles
  12. Early blood circulation, development of hematopoiesis
  13. Development of heart – heart tube and loop
  14. Development of heart – septation of atria, ventricles and outlet
  15. Aortal arches and development of arteries
  16. Sinus venosus and development of veins
  17. Fetal blood circulation, changes at birth
  18. Branchial arches
  19. Development of face
  20. Development of mouth and nose cavities
  21. Development of teeth
  22. Development of primitive gut and its segmentation
  23. Development of primitive pharynx, branchiogenic organs
  24. Development of tongue
  25. Development of caudal part of foregut
  26. Development of midgut and hindgut
  27. Development of liver
  28. Development of pancreas
  29. Development of larynx and trachea
  30. Development of lungs and changes of lungs at birth
  31. Development of coelom; pericardial, pleural and peritoneal cavities
  32. Development of diaphragm
  33. Development of kidneys and ureters
  34. Development of rectum, urinary bladder and urethra
  35. Development of gonads and sex differentiation
  36. Development of female genital ducts and external genitalia
  37. Development of male genital ducts and external genitalia
  38. Development of skin, hairs, sweat and sebaceous glands, mammary glands
  39. Development of neural tube; histogenesis of nerve tissue
  40. Development of spinal cord and spinal ganglia
  41. Development of brain – early differentiation and organisation of nerve tissue
  42. Development of brain – derivatives of the 2nd and 3rd primary brain vesicles
  43. Development of brain – derivatives of the 1st primary brain vesicle
  44. Development of endocrine glands
  45. Development of eye
  46. Development of ear
  47. Development of olfactory apparatus

Developmental Biology

  1. Usage of developmental biology in medicine
  2. Differential gene expression and its regulation
  3. Transcription factors and gene expression
  4. Regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation
  5. Regulation of gene expression by histone acetylation
  6. Systems of cell signalization in development
  7. Receptors
  8. Cytoskeleton function in development and cell adhesion molecules
  9. Homeotic selection genes - characteristics of their function in invertebrates and vertebrates
  10. Genes of paired rule (PAX gene family)
  11. Inducing factors - morphogens
  12. Holoprosencephaly and its molecular nature; Sonic hedgehog genes
  13. Apoptosis and its morphological aspects
  14. Regulation of apoptosis; phases of apoptosis; gene TP53 and programmed cell death
  15. Models of apoptosis
  16. Caspases
  17. Mitochondria in apoptosis
  18. Function of apoptosis in prenatal development
  19. Neurodegenerative diseases and apoptosis
  20. Cloning in medicine; totipotency, pluripotency, multipotency, unipotency
  21. Three cloning pathways
  22. Nuclear transplantation in animals
  23. Therapeutic and reproductive cloning
  24. Transgenic organisms; knock-out, knock-in, mammalian models of human diseases
  25. Preimplantation diagnosis
  26. Inconveniencies, risks of cloning and cloning ethics
  27. Biology of ageing; senescence
  28. Life span, longevity and causes of ageing
  29. Molecular genetics of ageing
  30. Characteristics of basic morphogenetic processes
  31. Universal strategy of pattern formation and epigenetic mechanism of development
  32. Differences between mozaic and regulative embryos
  33. Maternal versus zygotic genes and their function
  34. Embryonal induction and its realization; position information and its specification
  35. Teratology, teratogenesis, teratogen and birth defects and deviations and their causes
  36. Human prenatal extinction
  37. Basic principles of teratogenesis; critical and sensitive period (generally cytotoxic versus specific teratogens)
  38. Manifestations of developmental toxicity and their transformations; malformation, deformation and disruption
  39. Mutagenesis versus teratogenesis, correspondences and differences
  40. Physical and chemical teratogens
  41. Biological teratogens
  42. Effect of maternal organism to fetus development
  43. Function of retinoic acid in development
  44. Characterization of stem cells and their basic types
  45. Significance and usage of cell therapy; safety for cell therapy
  46. Genetic and pacemaker theory of aging
  47. Free radical theory

Total number of questions: 226

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